- Status in VT: Increased by 200% (0 to 2 blocks). Greatest increase in Champlain Valley.
- Data from other research: Young Island: more than 10,000 pairs nested annually for the past 30 years on Young Island. Nests also on Papasquash Island and Rock Island.
- Conservation status: State rank S1B; S5N
- Other atlases: NY and ON: range expansions
- VT’s role in North American range: VT is at the southern edge of the range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: Recent decrease in abundance due to reduction in available food resources resulting from landfill closures and loss of cropland acreage.
- Management/Monitoring recommendations: population control on Young Island, with the goal of restoring natural vegetation, includes egg-oiling and shooting.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
Encyclopedia of Life
All About Birds