- Status in VT: Decreased by 37% (62 to 39 blocks). Greatest decreases in Southern Green Mountains and Southern Vermont Piedmont.
- Data from other research: No additional data for VT.
- Conservation status: State rank S2B; SGCN-M
- Other atlases: NY: 23%; PA: 58%; MD: 26%; ON: increased
- VT’s role in North American range: VT is within the core of the range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: Habitat loss from logging, development, and wetland draining; sensitivity to forest modification, resulting in failed competition with Red-tailed Hawk and Great Horned Owl.
- Management/Monitoring recommendations:Preservation of large tracts of contiguous mature forest and the protection of associated wetlands; use of raptor-specific monitoring protocol; establishment of buffer zone around nesting areas.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
Encyclopedia of Life
All About Birds