- Status in VT: Decreased by 67% (6 to 2 blocks).
- Data from other research: No additional data for VT.
- Conservation status: State rank SNA
- Other atlases: NY: -26%; PA: -66%; MD; -45%; ON: -65%
- VT’s role in North American range: One of many states where releases and clearing of land in 1800s created small populations. Not part of natural range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: Continued reversion of agricultural land to forest. Range-wide decline due to: habitat loss (suburban sprawl, elimination of hedgerows and fallow fields); loss of nesting cover (planting of exotic grasses, elimination of nesting habitat in cropland).
- Management/Monitoring recommendations: No current recommendations. Reintroduction not recommended, as VT is not part of the species’ natural range.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
Encyclopedia of Life
All About Birds