- Status in VT: Minimal distribution change. Population increase in northeastern arm of Lake Champlain.
- Data from other research: No additional data for VT.
- Conservation status: State rank S1B; E; SGCN-H
- Other atlases: NY: -1%; PA: -50%; MD: 7%
- VT’s role in North American range: VT is within (but is a very small part of) the breeding range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: Intensive management and recovery efforts: limiting human disturbance by posting and acquiring nesting islands; controlling gull and cormorant populations; using decoys and broadcasting vocalizations to attract terns to traditional nesting locations; protecting nests and chicks from predators.
- Management/Monitoring recommendations: Continue management and recovery efforts listed above.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
Encyclopedia of Life
All About Birds