- Status in VT: Decreased by 78% (9 to 2 blocks). Greatest decrease in Northern Green Mountains and Northern Vermont Piedmont.
- Data from other research: No additional data for VT.
- Conservation status: State rank S1B
- Other atlases: ON: no sig. change (-35% in Southern Shield)
- VT’s role in North American range: VT is at the extreme southern edge of the range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: Decrease in spruce budworm abundance; increased demand for lumber resulting in decreases in acreage of mature spruce/fir stands (?).
- Management/Monitoring recommendations:No specific recommendations.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
Encyclopedia of Life
All About Birds