- Status in VT: No change. Four observations reported from 1985 through 2010; all in Champlain Valley. In 2011, 4 nest boxes found occupied; one with 3 chicks, one with 2 unhatched eggs.
- Data from other research: No additional data for VT.
- Conservation status: State rank
- Other atlases: NY: -78%; PA: -54%; ON: no change
- VT’s role in North American range: VT is disjunct from the core of the range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: No change. Regional decline due to: disappearance of barns and silos; increase in forested area; loss of open grassland and agricultural land needed for foraging; vehicle collision.
- Management/Monitoring recommendations: Use of nest boxes and more intensive monitoring recommended in Champlain Valley.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
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