- Status in VT: Decreased by 40% (25 to 15 blocks). Greatest decrease in Champlain Valley.
- Data from other research: No additional data for VT.
- Conservation status: State rank S3
- Other atlases: NY, ON: stable
- VT’s role in North American range: VT is near the northern edge of the range.
- Causes of change since first Atlas: Historical records suggest cyclical trends; collisions with cars (?); increased competition for nesting cavities (?); predation (?).
- Management/Monitoring recommendations:Land managers should leave standing dead trees; erection of nest boxes; focused monitoring.
First Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (1976-1981)
Second Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (2003 – 2007)
Change in Distribution
Encyclopedia of Life
All About Birds