The Elktoe was not discovered in Vermont until 2000 in a short stretch (~ 5 miles) of the Lamoille River in Fairfax and Georgia.
- Size: Up to 4 inches.
- Shape: Elongate and quadrate. The shell is usually fairly thin and inflated. The anterior end is rounded, the posterior end is bluntly ended in a squarish point. The dorsal margin is slightly rounded and the ventral margin is nearly straight.
- Periostracum: Smooth, yellow-brown with broad green rays and dark green dots (usually absent in other species). The posterior end of the shell is usually lighter.
- Lateral Teeth: Generally absent.
- Pseudocardinal Teeth: Present. Both left and right valves have a thin, elongated tooth.
- Nacre: White, occasionally it is has a salmon tint near the beak.
- The foot of a live Elktoe tends to have an orangish color.
- Similar Species:
- State and Global Rank: S1 (critically imperiled) G4 (apparently secure)
- Vermont Wildlife Action Plan: Species of Greatest Conservation Need
- Vermont Endangered Species Law: Special Concern
Found in small to large streams and small to medium rivers. It is a riffle species, preferring swifter currents over packed sand and gravel substrates. It is typically only found in clean, clear water where it burrows securely into the sand-filled spaces between stones.
Reported fish hosts found in Vermont include White Sucker (Catastomus commersoni), Shorthead Redhorse (Moxostoma nacrolepidotum), and Rockbass (Ambloplites rupestris).
Only found in an approximately 5 mile stretch of the Lamoille River.